Making gobar gas is an anaerobic process- i.e. something that is done in the absence of oxygen. The anaerobic digesters that treat the farm and animal and organic wastes are called gobar gas plants. The waste fed to the plant is biodegradable. Micro organisms transform the gobar to gobar gas during the process. All of this takes place in the plant. Although the gas can be made at home, the plant makes gobar gas on a bigger scale.
The plant needs to take appropriate measures since gobar gas is an explosive gas. Hence if a leak is smelled anywhere, the production of the gas has to be momentarily stopped to stop the leak. The pressure conditions at the plant need to be maintained as well because negative gas pressure, which is caused if too much gas is removed can make the plant explosive.
What is gobar gas?
Gobar gas is a mixture of gases produced in the absence of oxygen (anaerobic) by the breakdown of organic matter, consisting primarily of methane and carbon dioxide. Raw materials such as agricultural waste, fertiliser, municipal waste, plant material, sewage, green waste or food waste can be used to generate gobar gas. Gobar gas is an energy source that is renewable. It is also known as ‘Gobar Gas’ in India.
Anaerobic digestion with methanogen or anaerobic species, which digest material within a closed system or ferment biodegradable materials, produces gobar gas. This closed system is referred to as an anaerobic digester, biodigester or bioreactor.
Just how natural gas is compressed to CNG and used to power motor vehicles, Gobar gas can be compressed after the depletion of Carbon Dioxide. In a few places in the world, gobar gas qualifies as a renewable energy subsidy. On cleaning and upgrading to natural gas levels, gobar gas becomes bio methane.
Gobar gas is a renewable source of energy. This is because it gets produced and renewed continuously and creates zero net carbon dioxide. As much carbon dioxide that is absorbed from the atmosphere in the growth of the resource, as much is released back into the atmosphere when the resource is converted to energy.
- Advantages of gobar gas
Gobar gas has numerable advantages. It is the best alternative for artificial fertilisers, especially for our Indian farmers. From monetary to environmental, here are some advantages of this natural gas:
- In the form of electricity and heat for the local grid, gobar gas is a green source.
- Gobar gas emits way less greenhouse gases- Carbon Dioxide, Methane and nitrous oxide
- Gobar gas is an excellent way to use organic waste, in a way that it is friendly for the environment as well
- Gobar gas is not very expensive to make. Hece it saves the money spent on artificial fertilisers.
- Using gobar gas protects the water present in the subsoil- something that many Indians rely on. The improved nitrogen exploitation by the gas reduces leaching. Hence it also reduces the contamination of drinking water
- Using gobar gas also aids in reducing global warming and pollution
- Using gobar gas at home to cook also has many advantages
- In the case of a leakage, LPG has a liquid like tendency to flow and flows down and stays there. This feature of the gas is very dangerous for domestic environments.
- But since gobar gas is ighter than air, in case of a leak, it disperses easily into the air, making it a safer choice than LPG or CNG
- Since gobar gas is a smokeless, non-toxic fuel, it reduces health problems associated with other fuels such as respiratory risks and eye infections.
Gobar gas, combined with its by-product bioslurry makes for very bio friendly alternatives for domestic fuels and artificial fertilisers.
- What does gobar gas consist of? Cost of gobar gas
At the basic level, gobar gas is made of methane, carbon dioxide and traces of hydrogen sulphide, siloxanes and moisture. Gobar gas acts as a fuel when the gases methane, hydrogen and carbon monoxide are oxidised with oxygen. This heat produced can be used for anything such as cooking, as it is in a lot of parts in India.
The gas can also be converted into electricity in a gas engine. Just how natural gas is compressed to CNG, gobar gas can be compressed after the removal of oxygen and used as a motor fuel. The composition of the gas and the amount of methane can be increased and changed, depending on the conditions in the anaerobic reactor.
The cost of gobar gas plants depends on their usage. Plants used in agriculture range from Rs. 15,000a piece to Rs. 35,000a piece. If the plant is to be used domestically, the price falls between Rs. 20,000a piece to Rs. 40,000a piece. While, if the plant is to be used in the industry, the cost starts from Rs. 1,35,000a piece and can go up to Rs. 7,50,000a piece or even more.
- How to make gobar gas at home
One of the main and most important perks of gobar gas is the fact that it can be made at home. This makes the environment friendly fuel more available to the farmers of India. The main component for making the gas is waste- animal or natural and this is something that is available in abundance for Indian farmers. It can be made at home and here’s how:
- Making gobar gas is an anaerobic process- one that doesn’t require oxygen.
- To start making gobar gas, you will first have to make a generator. This can be made using any barrel or container, big enough to create enough fuel in.
- This container will have 3 outlets- a tube to feed the generator with material, an effluent tube to remove the digested solids and liquids and one last tube that will act as the gas outlet.
- This container has to be airtight so that no oxygen can enter the space.
- To start off, one must first collect the organic material and mix it with water in the container.
- Then what’s added next is the fermentation starter.
- Fermentation starter is a preparation that is used to start the process of fermentation is a number of processes.
- The temperature of the container should be maintained and kept between 35-50 degree C
- Within a week of this whole set up, the generator must start generating gobar gas
This is the basic and easy way to make the fuel at home. Once a person has gotten fluent with the process, more professional equipment can be employed and this gas can be produced in huge amounts and help a number of people and families.
- Summing up
Gobar gas is a highly eco-friendly domestic fuel that needs to be used more effectively. Solar and hydro are two energy sources that have become extremely popular in the past years. Gobar gas needs to be used as extensively because the benefits of this fuel are innumerable. It can easily be made at home, which makes it extremely accessible. The things needed to make it are mainly animal and vegetable wastes. Both these things are available to our farmers in their daily lives. Instead of throwing away, these can be used to their own benefits. Gobar gas is cost effective and the perfect alternative for domestic fuels such as CNG and LPG. It also has a by-product known as bioslurry- a great fertiliser which is more natural and safe when compared to artificial fertilisers. Going the gobar gas way will help the farmers of our country utilise the cattle waste in an environment friendly way. Gobar gas will help change the game for farmers- it can increase their surplus and harvests, it can be used as an impressive domestic fuel and will also help the farmers save money. The time to use, utilise and benefit from this great resource is now!